Articles accommodating gender differences in teaching
Teachers interested in reaching the broadest range of students can offer multiple means of representing the content in their classroom and provide students with multiple means of expressing their mastery of that content.
This universal design approach to education is strongly advocated by organizations that work to expand learning opportunities for those with disabilities, such as the Center for Applied Special Technology (Dolan and Hall 2001).
Each principle is accompanied by examples of how a science instructor might put that principle into practice. Because of both the frequent co-occurrence of learning disabilities and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (Brown 2000; Katz 2001; Willcutt 2000), and because of the challenges to accurate diagnoses (Hammill 2001; Kamphaus, Frick, and Lahey 1991), we have chosen for this article to follow the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s model in their 1998 national survey, and not distinguish between subsets of students based upon specific diagnoses.
Although various authors in this article cited may have their own definitions, we consider “learning disability” to encompass the range of learning disorders that interfere with academic achievement and social development (Pastor and Ruben 2005).
[Editor’s note: See “Universal Design in Science Learning’’ on page 32 of this issue of .] Principle-to-practice examples Although this principle may require more time to implement, the field of science lends itself well to teaching to a diversity of learning styles. Principle 2: Content learning is supported by explicit instruction in skills and strategies.
The science curriculum is embedded with an ever-increasing array of thinking, study, and organizational skills that are predictors of future academic success (Everson, Weinstein, and Laitusis 2000; Zimmerman 2002).
Developing ways to unobtrusively check organizational and study skills practices may be essential to their success in science courses.
Principle 3: Learning is facilitated when instruction and assessment are clearly organized.
Students in general voice a strong preference for frequent and specific feedback (Belcheir 1998), and this type of feedback is important to realistic self-assessment and ultimate success (Linnenbrink and Pintrich 2002; Pintrich 2002). She was attacked for being too young and too good looking to be a serious scientist.
Using a biology unit on cell transport as the content anchor, we present six principles and practical examples, which were developed as a follow-up to the project (an NSF grant–funded project designed to give introductory high school and college biology instructors ideas, tools, and inspiration for teaching diverse learners).
The principles draw from a review of science teaching and special education literature and the authors’ combined 20-plus years of experience working at a school designed to meet the needs of students with LD and/or attention deficit disorders.
Clearly articulated objectives, which are easily available and frequently referred to, can be an important reference point, allowing LD students to access and re-access information that is likely to provide both clarification and motivation.
Principle 5: Learning is improved when teachers provide consistent feedback. The effectiveness of a highly explicit, teacher-directed strategy instruction routine: Changing the writing performance of LD students.
The following instruction strategies will benefit these students.