Elucidating mechanism cellular uptake removal protein
Understanding of the endocytosis and exocytosis mechanisms of nanoparticles is essential for safe and efficient therapeutic application.In particular, exocytosis is of significance in the removal of nanoparticles with drugs and contrast agents from the body, while endocytosis is of great importance for the targeting of nanoparticles in disease sites.Keywords: drug delivery, endocytosis, exocytosis, cancer cell, macrophage, nanoparticle, toxicity In order to successfully apply nanoparticles in drug delivery, their physical and chemical properties must first be understood, thereby assisting in controlling the biological responses to their use.Because drug delivery nanosystems transport pharmaceutical compounds in the body, it is important to understand their physiochemical properties to safely achieve a desired therapeutic effect.The nanoparticle surface can be modified with various targeting molecules (eg, antibody, peptide, aptamer, etc) in order to achieve efficient targeting to disease sites.Recently, many scientists have begun to investigate the effects of different sizes, shapes, and surface chemistries on endocytosis, toxicity, and gene regulation.The stability lifetimes of the nanoparticle–protein complexes range from hours to days in the biological solutions.
Therefore, this review focuses on endocytosis and exocytosis patterns of nanoparticles in mammalian cells with respect to their size, shape, and surface chemistry (Figure 1).Because the formation of nanoparticle–protein complexes is mainly determined by surface chemistries of the nanoparticles, it is important to investigate which surface chemistry is the most favorable to form the nanoparticle–protein complex.Therefore, natural nanoparticle–protein complexes formed in biological environments would allow us to study how individual nanoparticles interact with various types of cells.However, these drug delivery nanosystems have shown some limitations regarding the toxicity of the nanoscale materials in the body.
In order to reduce their toxicity, it is crucial to study endocytosis, exocytosis, and clearance mechanisms for nanoparticles released from the nanoparticle–drug conjugates.
In biological solutions, such as blood, saliva, and cell culture media, the surface chemistry of nanoparticles plays a crucial role in determining their behavior because they are directly related to types and compositions of biomolecules attached to the nanoparticle surface.